Image by Raimond Klavins
  1. AUM. The following instructions concerneth the Science of Union.

  2. This Union (or Yoga) is achieved through the subjugation of the psychic nature, and the restraint of the chitta (or mind).

  3. When this has been accomplished, the Yogi knows himself as he is in reality.

  4. Up till now the inner man has identified himself with his forms and with their active modifications.

  5. The mind states are five, and are subject to pleasure or pain; they are painful or not painful.

  6. These modifications (activities) are correct knowledge, incorrect knowledge, fancy, passivity (sleep) and memory.

  7. The basis of correct knowledge is correct perception, correct deduction, and correct witness (or accurate evidence).

  8. Incorrect knowledge is based upon perception of the form and not upon the state of being.

  9. Fancy rests upon images which have no real existence.

  10. Passivity (sleep) is based upon the quiescent state of the vrittis (or upon the non-perception of the senses).

Purusha, cosmic-self, Transcendent Being, pure Awareness



he word “yoga” is derived from the root “yuj” meaning “to unite.”

sadhana (practice). The sadhaka, the one who undertakes sadhana, needs to have the attitude of a disciple—a willingness to search, to listen, to change.

Yoga is the stopping of the movements (vrittis) of the mind

“Chitta” may be translated as “mind,” “consciousness,” or “psyche.”

“chitta” as “heart-mind” 

dukkha— suffering, frustration, and unhappiness.

Stillness, or freedom from distractions, develops through practice (abhyasa)

prakrita (natural, common, unrefined); but education can lead to a sanskrita (well-sculpted, cultured, educated) person.

Vairagya—which is non-attachment, non-identification, disinterest, indifference, dispassion, disenchantment—brings freedom from personal desire. 

Prakriti, the domain of cause and effect, and of visible and invisible creation in which all the gunas (the forces and materials of nature) operate,

A right relationship between Purusha and Prakriti, between Spirit and body, between transcendence and manifestation, is necessary for right action. 


Abhyasa'da bir bireyin benzersizliğinin güçlendirilmesi vardır -yetenekler, kapasiteler, irade, kararlılık ve benzerleri. Vairagya'da ise, bireyin daha yüksek ve daha süptil bir şeyin hizmetinde teslim olması veya Purusha ile temas kurulması söz konusudur.

samādhi is meditative absorption, attained by the practice of dhyāna


The stage of meditation preceding dhyāna is called dharana.[72][73] Dharana, which means "holding on", is the focusing and holding one's awareness to one object for a long period of time. In Yogasutras, the term implies fixing one's mind on an object of meditation, which could be one's breath or the tip of one's nose or the image of one's personal deity or anything of the yogi's choice.



The Yogasutras in verse 3.2 and elsewhere, states Edwin Bryant, defines Dhyana as the "continuous flow of the same thought or image of the object of meditation, without being distracted by any other thought".[75] Vivekananda explains Dhyana in Patanjali's Yogasutras as, "When the mind has been trained to remain fixed on a certain internal or external location, there comes to it the power of flowing in an unbroken current, as it were, towards that point. This state is called Dhyana"


The Dhyana step prepares a yogi to proceed towards practicing Samadhi. Swami Vivekananda describes the teachings of Yogasutras in the following way:


When one has so intensified the power of dhyana as to be able to reject the external part of perception and remain meditating only on the internal part, the meaning, that state is called Samadhi.


According to Patañjali, devotion to Ishvara leads to freedom from distractions and to the insight of samadhi.


Ishvara'ya teslim olmak (pranidhana), en derin benliğimize tam bir bağlılıktır.